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Sodium Benzoate & Citric Acid Myth

Written by Irina Webb

If you are confused about the safety of the sodium benzoate preservative when in contact with ascorbic acid (aka vitamin C) or citric acid, you are not alone.  There is a tremendous amount of inaccurate information circulating on the Internet and among ingredient-conscious consumers.  There is good news!  I was able to get to the bottom of this concern and filter out myth from real science.

Hint: Benzene may form only when sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid are present in the same product.  It must be ascorbic acid for this to occur, NOT citric acid, and here is why…

Sodium Benzoate Preservative and Citric Acid Myth

Let me start by telling you the reason it is important to look into this.  The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies benzene as a Group 1 human carcinogen (source).  A lot of cosmetic products contain both sodium benzoate and citric acid.  Is this a problem backed by scientific research, or is this simply an internet scare gone viral?  This is what I set out to find out.

The backstory of sodium benzoate used as a preservative

Soft drink survey

To begin, the sodium benzoate preservative controversy started in 2005 when some soft drinks tested positive for carcinogenic benzene.

According to the FDA website, the FDA first became aware that benzene could form in some drinks in the early 1990s.

In November 2005, the FDA examined the results of a survey of benzene levels in soft drinks.  According to the FDA, the vast majority of the drinks sampled (including those with both benzoate salts and ascorbic acid) contained either no detectable benzene or levels well below 5 ppb.  This is the EPA’s level for benzene in drinking water.

To put things in perspective, California’s public health goal for benzene is 0.15 ppb.  This number is based on scientific research as to the long-term health effects of benzene exposure.  It does not take into consideration what industry lobbyists might want (source).

The result of the soft drink survey

This survey generated a lot of publicity.  People started thinking that the same chemical reaction could occur in cosmetic products.  Because of the fact that citric acid and ascorbic acid are very similar, people voiced their concerns on the Internet.  The cause of the worry was the presence of citric acid in the products that contained sodium benzoate.

By the way, as a result of the publicity, soft drink manufacturers either discontinued the use of sodium benzoate or reformulated those products that had higher benzene levels.  The FDA continued testing soft drinks after the initial survey.  They found that benzene levels were less than 1.5 ppb (source).

What stimulates the formation of benzene?

Starting in 1993, there have been a lot of studies to determine specific benzene formation mechanisms.  Most studies indicate the best candidates for benzene formation.  They are conditions with elevated temperature and light where ascorbic acid and benzoic acid or potassium or calcium or sodium benzoate preservative are present.  In addition, traces of copper and iron may catalyze reactions between ascorbic and benzoic acid or benzoate salts (source).

Furthermore, it is important to note that while there is a detailed account of the chemical reaction that forms benzene, there is no mention of citric acid.  Ascorbic acid is the culprit.

In 2006, the American Beverage Association published guidelines for beverage manufacturers.  These guidelines were to help them to reduce or inhibit the formation of benzene in their products.  One of the most important guidelines involved replacing ascorbic acid with another antioxidant.  Another one was about adding EDTA or sodium polyphosphates to chelate the metallic ions that catalyze hydroxyl radical formation.  The third guideline was to review the storage conditions and shelf life to minimize product exposure to high temperatures and ultraviolet (UV) light.

Sodium benzoate preservative in skincare products

Should we be concerned about ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate preservative reaction in skincare products?

I must say that when I determine whether a product is safe enough to recommend for you to use, I look at every ingredient.  Although the Skin Deep database is a good starting point, it has certain shortcomings for which we consumers should account.  (You can read more about how to use the Skin Deep database to get accurate information here.)

CIR reports

Sometimes the best way to get accurate information is to go directly to the source, namely, scientific studies.  The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel publishes their reviews of scientific studies in CIR reports.  You can find them on the CIR website.

The CIR report on sodium benzoate preservative describes a test to examine benzene formation in the beverage samples.  The beverages were in the UV stabilized and non-UV stabilized packaging.  Some of the samples had 0.04% benzoate and 0.025% ascorbic acid in water.  As a result, under intense UV light benzene levels increased by as much as 53%, whereas the use of UV stabilized polyethylene terephthalate bottles reduced benzene formation by approximately 13%.

Since the CIR mentions this in the report, it would be a good idea to avoid skin products with both ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate preservative in them.  The CIR report does not mention that a reaction between citric acid and the preservative in question can produce benzene. 

Citric acid in personal care products

I must tell you, it is such a relief to know this!  In my 7 years of researching personal care and skincare products, I have discovered that most personal care and skincare products contain citric acid.  For example, my survey of popular baby wipes brands showed that every baby wipe formulation had citric acid in it.  And sodium benzoate preservative is a common choice for baby wipes manufacturers.  It protects their products from bacteria contamination.  Citric acid is important to regulate the pH of a product, and its quantity is usually very small.

Conclusion about citric acid and sodium benzoate preservative

In conclusion, we do not have to worry about citric acid and sodium benzoate preservative.  The concern about carcinogenic benzene development arises only when ascorbic acid and benzoic acid or benzoate salts interact with one another.

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50 thoughts on “Sodium Benzoate & Citric Acid Myth”

  1. This is such wonderful news. Thank you for this info Irina. It is invaluable! I have a query though, so one should stay away from personal care products with sodium benzoate & Vit C in it, but can you layer or use different products on let’s say your face where one contains Vit C and another sodium benzoate? 🤔

      1. So sodium benzoate is 100 % safe correct?

        Especially in deodorants mixed with essential oils? Directly in contact with our lymph nodes.

        Because essential oils do contain vitamin c.

        I would just like to make sure.

        I appreciate your help.

        1. Stephanie: there is no such thing as 100% safe. What can be safe for one person can be poison for others. With this said. I don’t think there is any concern about mixing essential oils with sodium benzoate. ~Irina

  2. Should I be concerned by the combination of benzoic and citrus acid used in this product?

    Shampoo – ingredients list.

    aqua
    decyl glucoside
    xanthan gum
    aloe barbadensis leaf juice powder
    citric acid
    benzoic acid
    dehydroacetic acid
    organic simmondsia chinensis oil
    d-panthenol (pro vitamin b5)
    phenoxyethanol
    inulin (aqua alpha-glucan oligosaccharide pre biotic)

    Thank you! ( just purchased your consumer superpower)

      1. Hi,

        Im thinking of trying this product that has the following ingredients:

        Triticum vulgare/aestivum (wheat) sprout extract, purified water, fructose, glycerol, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate.

        My question is that wheatgrass contains vitamin C and whether it is a concern since sodium benzoate is added in.

        Thanks!

        Lin

  3. Thanks a lot gor your detailed explanation. The ginger garlic paste i use for cooking has sodium benzoate and citric acid. Though it increases temperature while i cook, can i assume this combination as safe?

  4. Hi & thank you for such a clarifying post. If I’m understanding correctly, it would not be wise to mix a vitamin c serum – ascorbic acid as the active with a hydrating serum that contains sodium benzoate? This might create a “benzene situation?”
    Thank you!

      1. Should I be concerned by the combination of sodium benzoate and E-ascorbic acid used in this product ?

        Sunscreen-ingredients list.

        Aqua, Titanium Dioxide, Suncat DE TM, Sodium Polyacrylate, Glycerin, Zinc Oxide, Xylitol, Phospholipids, Caprylic Acid, Glyceryl Stearate, Dicaprylyl Carbonate, Hyaluronic Acid, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) Seed Oil, D-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate, Calendula Flower Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Himalayan Thermal Water, SODIUM BENZOATE, E-ASCORBIC ACID, Sodium Levulinate, Phenoxyehtanol, IFRA Certified Allergen Free Fragrance, Allantoin, Melanin.

        Thank you!

  5. Hi Irina,
    I was wondering, given more Vitamin C derivatives are now used in skincare some of them actually mix with sodium benzoate and/or benzoic acid with these latter being listed near the bottom of the list. Do you know if derivatives like ethyl ascorbic acid are safe to layer with other products containing them. Is there a skin reaction that occurs that makes us known to the danger? I’ve only used the derivative and have tried to research and most articles note that skin penetration has low risk for any danger.

    1. Is there a concern about products combining sodium benzoate with sodium ascorbyl phosphate?

      And does this apply to C12-15 alkyl Benzoate? What about benzyl alcohol?

      Thanks.

  6. Irina, what wipe preservative would you recommend in this case? I followed this article from your previous post on Phenoxyethanol – which is a common preservative,

    Would sodium benzoate be alright i.e if not better than phenoxyethanol? Maybe the better question is what preserve should I look for in wipes?

  7. Hello, i use sunscreen that contains benzoic acid, on mornings. İs it okay to use vitamin c on evenings after cleaning sunscreen from my face?

  8. Hi! Thank you so much for this, it’s been so helpful. Would taking an iron supplement with sodium benzoate and also eating vitamin c -rich foods to help with absorption be problematic?

    Thanks,
    Kathleen

    1. Hi, Kathleen: I don’t recommend taking sodium benzoate internally. Could you find a supplement without sodium benzoate preservatives? ~Irina

  9. Would the body shop strawberry shampoo be a problem cause it has strawberry juice and sodium benzoate and I’m guessing strawberry juice has Vit C.

    Aqua/Water/Eau, Sodium Laureth Sulfate, Citric Acid, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Ammonium Hydroxide, Sodium Chloride, Propylene Glycol, Parfum/Fragrance, Sodium Benzoate, Hexylene Glycol, Polyquaternium-10, Glycerin, Fragaria Vesca Juice/Strawberry Juice, Salicylic Acid, PPG-5-Ceteth-20, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice Powder, Limonene, Sodium Acetate, Isopropyl Alcohol, Sodium Hydroxide, CI 14700/Red 4, CI 17200/Red 33.

    1. That’s an interesting one. I am not so sure how much of that strawberry juice is actually in the shampoo and how much of vitamin C is preserved in the juice. But the way, this shampoo does not adhere to the safety standards that I set up for I Read Labels For You. ~Irina

  10. Hello,

    What about nail polish.
    Should I be concerned about this nail polish

    Ingredients : BUTYL ACETATE, ETHYL ACETATE, NITROCELLULOSE, ADIPIC ACID/NEOPENTYL GLYCOL/TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE COPOLYMER, PLANT BASED NON DENATURED ALCOHOL ETHYL ACETATE, TRIBUTYL CITRATE,ISOSORBIDE DICAPRYLATE/CAPRATE, BUTYL ACETATE, STEARALKONIUM BENTONITE, ISOPROPYL, PLANT BASED NON DENATURED ALCOHOL, PHOSPHORIC ACID, ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE, CAPRYLIC/CAPRIC TRIGLYCERIDE, PRUNUS CERASUS (BITTER CHERRY) FLOWER EXTRACT (PRUNUS CERASUS FLOWER EXTRACT), CITRIC ACID, DIACETONE ALCOHOL, WATER (AQUA), GLYCERIN, PUNICA GRANATUM FRUIT EXTRACT, PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS (SWEET ALMOND) OIL (PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS OIL), PERSEA GRATISSIMA (AVOCADO) OIL (PERSEA GRATISSIMA OIL), POTASSIUM SORBATE, EQUISETUM ARVENSE LEAF EXTRACT, PROPYLENE GLYCOL, SILICA, SODIUM BENZOATE, TOCOPHEROL

    1. Hi, Marija: from the perspective of sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid interaction, I believe that this product is okay. ~Irina

  11. Recently we bought a gripe water for our 2 month old with following inactive ingredients
    Citric acid, potassium benzoate , potassium citrate and potassium sorbate..is it safe to use for my son? Or should I worry about formation of benzene in this? Thank you

  12. For the Mad Hippie Vitamin C
    Water Deionized, Vitamin C (Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate), Alkyl Benzoate, Vegetable Glycerin, Water, Glycerin, Sodium Levulinate, Sodium Anisate, Clary Sage (Salvia Sclarea), Grapefruit (Citrus Grandis), Hyaluronic acid, Amorphophallus Konjac Root Powder, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf, Vitamin E (Tocotrienol), Ferulic acid, Chamomile Flower Extract (Recutita Matricaria), Sodium Phytate, Xanthan Gum, Hydroxyethylcellulose

    Is this safe?
    The 2nd ingredient is Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate and the 3rd ingredient is Alkyl Benzoate, so high amounts of both. Reached out to the company and they said the Alkyl Benzoate is derived from coconut. Not sure if that makes a difference.

    Thank you for this article! It’s wonderful 🙂

  13. Hello. Is it okay to use this face wash that has this ingredients
    Ingredients
    Aqua (Water)
    , Sodium Laureth Sulfate, Glycerin, Cocamidopropyl Betaine, Sodium Chloride, Benzyl Alcohol, Glycol Distearate, PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Laureth-4, Sodium Benzoate, Dipropylene Glycol, Tocopheryl Acetate, PEG-120 Methyl Glucose Dioleate, Sodium Citrate, Propylene Glycol, Citric Acid, Tetrasodium EDTA, Parfum (Fragrance), Retinyl Palmitate, Disodium Phosphate, Hexyl Cinnamal, Hydroxycitronellal, Citronellol, Sorbitol, Sodium Hydroxide, Limonene, Linalool, Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Fruit Extract, Denatonium Benzoate, Tocopherol, Benzoic Acid, Ci 19140 (Yellow 5), Ci 42090 (Blue 1)

  14. Ever since the reports of Benzene have been in suncreen, I’ve been on the look out for Sodium Benzoate everywhere!

    Lately I’ve been using two Mario Badescu products and I’m a bit nervous they’re unsafe. Typically I use the Witch Hazel Toner, Cellufirm Drops and Vitamin C Serum – and they all have Sodium Benzoate. Although my skin has been looking *great* lately, I DEFINITELY do not want to continue usage if they’re cancer causing.

    The product I guess I’m most concerned about is the Vitamin C serum? Here are the ingredients:
    Propylene Glycol, Aqua (Water, Eau), Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice, Hexylene Glycol, Pentylene Glycol, Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate, 3-O-Ethyl Ascorbic Acid, PEG-25 Hydrogenated Castor Oil, PEG-40 Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Extract, Panax Ginseng Root Extract, Sodium Hyaluronate, Soluble Collagen, Lavandula Angustifolia (Lavender) Oil, Hydroxyacetophenone, Triethanolamine, Citric Acid, Potassium Sorbate, Caprylyl Glycol, Phenoxyethanol, Silver Citrate, Zeolite, Sodium Benzoate

    What are your thoughts? Cease and desist?

  15. How about the sodium benzoate in novaferrum liquid iron supplements for kids? Pediatricians recommend taking novaferrum with vitamin c foods like oranges for iron absorption. Does the combination result in the formation of carinogenic benzene?

  16. Hi Irina,
    I was wondering, is there a concern for the combination of Ascorbyl Palmitate and Sodium Benzoate in skincare products? I was unable to find any research about this form of Vit C.

    1. Hi, Raza! Thank you for the question! Ascorbyl Palmitate is a kind of Vitamin C, and we do not recommend the combination of Vitamin C with Sodium Benzoate. I hope this helps!

  17. Hello Irina!

    I was so interested to read this article as I have been studying Sodium Benzoate and how it interacts with Ascorbic Acid for some time now. I’m a skincare enthusiast and I’ve been obsessed with ingredients for a while. I try my hardest to only use the purest products (no parabens, alcohols, overall harsh ingredients etc.) Thus, once I learned how the two ingredients (in the same formulation) could cause Benzene, I was FLOORED and I instantly put it on my list of bad ingredients (based on individualized situation), mainly because I use A LOT of Vitamin C (in the form of ascorbic acid) products daily. After doing some research I learned that not only do A TON of products contain Sodium Benzoate, but also ingredients like: Benzoic Acid and a number of other “Ben” ingredients (many having a Benzene ring in their core or makeup). I was overwhelmed by how many products I had to eliminate and even more alarmed by a few VITAMIN C products that had the both ingredients inside. All that being said, I would love to hear your thoughts on the following question: In your opinion should I be concerned about using products with Sodium Benzoate in them since I would more than likely follow up with an Ascorbic Acid product? Wouldn’t that be similar to mixing the two ingredients and creating the cocktail on the surface of skin that would be absorbed?

    Any advice would be more than appreciated! I’ve been racking my brain over this question for the longest time and constantly eliminating products with Sodium Benzoate in them.

    Thank you so very much for your time and assistance!

    1. Hi, Brittany! Thank you for reaching out to I Read Labels for You! Good job with your healthy living journey! As for your question, we have talked to chemists and did research into scientific sources, but we have not found any evidence proving that benzene formation on the skin after the subsequent use of ascorbic acid is possible. We hope this helps!

      1. Hello Maria!

        Thank you, thank you, thank you so very much for your kind words and reply! This information definitely helps!!

        I TRULY appreciate your time and assistance!!

        Sincerely,

        Brittany B.

  18. Thank you for this! I was afraid to drink my Aloe Vera juice because it contains Sodium Benzoate and Citric Acid. Thanks for clearing everything up!

  19. I am breastfeeding and very careful about what I put on and in my body. The one treat I allowed myself (with doctor’s OK) is an almost daily latte. I just discovered this place uses Torani vanilla syrup which has sodium benzoate and citric acid. I am panicking that I’ve inadvertently harmed my baby by drinking this regularly…

    1. Hi, Ali! Our “Sodium Benzoate & Citric Acid Myth” blog post emphasizes in the introduction and conclusion that “Benzene may form only when sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid are present in the same product. It must be ascorbic acid for this to occur, NOT citric acid.” May we ask about the cause of your anxiety?

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